Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Candida Albicans in Human Infections

Kamal Uddin Zaidi, Abin Mani*, Richa Parmar, Vijay Thawani
Biotechnology Pharmacology Laboratory and Human genetics Laboratory, Centre for Scientific Research and Development, People’s University, Bhopal 462037, India

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© 2018 Zaidi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Biotechnology Pharmacology Laboratory and Human genetics Laboratory,Centre for Scientific Research and Development, People’s University, Bhopal 462037, India; Tel: 02554004084; E-mails:,



Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen under immune-compromised conditions and despite anti-fungal therapies, it has become lethal. Increase in the antimicrobial resistance in C. albicans is a matter of concern since it is in the human microbiome.

Aims and Objectives:

This study was conducted to estimate the incidence of C. albicans in infections, and evaluate its antifungal susceptibility in clinical samples.

Methods and Materials:

Two hundred isolates of C. albicans from different clinical samples were analyzed against its susceptibility towards four antifungal agents (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin-B) using well diffusion and MIC by microdilution assay.


All isolates in the study were sensitive to amphotericin-B and ketoconazole and a high frequency of fluconazole and itraconazole resistance was observed. Oral and catheter tips were observed to be the major sites of C. albicans infections. Significant resistance aganist fluconazole (56.5%) and itraconazole (64.5%) was observed with MIC at 16, 32 to 64μg/ml. All isolates were observed to be sensitive for ketoconazole and amphotericin-B at 0.5μg/ml and 1μg/ml.


The study shows a higher antibiotic resistance in the clinical samples which proves the risk in C. albicans management program.

Keywords: Antifungal resistance, Fluconazole, Microdilution assay, Minimum inhibitory concentration.