Phenotypic Correlation and Path Analysis in Sunflower Genotypes and Pollination Influence on Estimates

Emerson Dechechi Chambó1, Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira2, Regina Conceição Garcia2, Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki3, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo4, *
1 Grupo de Pesquisa Insecta, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil
2 Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Paraná, Brazil
3 Departamento de Biotecnologia, Genética e Biologia Celular, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil
4 Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil

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© Chambó et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, 5790 Colombo Avenue, zipcode 87020-900, Brazil; Tel: (+55) 4430118939; E-mail:


Eight sunflower genotypes were analyzed to estimate correlation values for nine agronomic traits. Path analysis was used to partition the correlation values into direct and indirect effects on seed yield in two pollination tests (open and restricted pollination). In both tests, there were significant (p<0.05) positive correlation values between seed yield and head diameter, head mass, number and mass of achenes per head and first and last count of germination. There was no correlation (p≥0.05) between seed yield and 1000 seed weight in both pollination tests. Oil content was not correlated (p≥0.05) with seed yield in the open pollination, but it was positively correlated (p<0.05) in restricted plants. The path analysis, in both pollination tests, indicated that head mass had the highest direct effect on seed yield. It can be concluded that the variables head mass and number of seeds per inflorescence (for pollination open) should get due attention in sunflower breeding programs, indirectly contributing to seed yield. In addition, for both pollination tests, the number of seeds per inflorescence has high significant positive correlation to the oil content and may contribute to its increase.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, Genetic breeding, Helianthus annuus, Pollinators, Seed yield, Selection.