Relationships of Zn Between Centella Asiatica and Geochemical Fractions of the Habitat Topsoils: Implications of Biomonitoring of Zn

Chee K. Yap1, *, Hishamuddin Omar1, Rosimah Nulit1, Ghim H. Ong2, Alireza R. Bakhtiari3, Ali Karami4, Salman A. Al-Shami5
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2 Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran
4 Laboratory of Aquatic Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
5 Biology Department, University College of Taymma, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, P.O.Box 741, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

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© 2017 Yap et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Tel: 603-89466616; E-mail:



Present study focused on the relationships of Zn concentrations between Centella asiatica (leaves, stems and roots) and their habitat topsoils.

Methods & Materials:

For leaves, it is found that Zn levels in the leaves significantly (P< 0.05) correlated with geochemical fractions of easily, freely, leachable or exchangeable (EFLE) (R= 0.94), acid-reducible (AR) (R= 0.63), oxidisable-organic (OO) (R= 0.85), resistant (R) (R= 0.79) and summation of all four fractions (SUM) (R= 0.83). For stems, it is found that Zn levels in the stems significantly (P< 0.05) correlated with AR (R= 0.73), R (R= 0.75) and SUM (R= 0.72). For roots, it is found that Zn levels in the roots significantly (P< 0.05) correlated with EFLE (R= 0.88), AR (R= 0.65), OO (R= 0.86), R (R= 0.77) and SUM (R= 0.82).


These results indicated that the three parts of C. asiatica are able to reflect the Zn concentrations in the habitat topsoils. Based on ecological risk (Er) of the habitat topsoils, all samplings sites were categorized as ‘Low potential ecological risk’ according to Hakanson classification. Based on the positive significant relationships of Zn concentrations between plant parts and geochemical fractions of their habitat topsoils, present study indicated that C. asiatica can be used as biomonitoring plant of Zn polluted topsoils.

Keywords: Zinc, Centella asiatica, Topsoils, Relationships between plant and topsoils.